Often times, it is most persuasive to talk about a scholar’s own words; an interview excerpt works well in this situation.
Make sure to check the formatting requirements provided by your learning institution and the word count. You might also need to give your work for revision by your advisor before finalizing it, so be sure to leave time for this step too.
If you are a graduate student or are working on an advanced degree, you will face a literature review at some point. Producing an effective review is often a key part of the work grad students, and doctoral candidates have to complete in conjunction with other parts of their studies. Since such work is often conducted early in a academic program, learning how to complete one correctly as soon as possible is important. While each academic program may have its specific requirements for formal academic papers, this article provides a detailed overview of how to write such a piece.
A review is a detailed list or survey of scholarly sources that provides a successful overview of a particular subject or topic. These sources can include books, academic journal articles, theses, and dissertations. Such assignments are sometimes referred to as narrative reviews. While they can vary in scale and scope depending on their purpose, a good review aims to achieve the following:
During your academic career, there are many instances where you might be required to prepare a review. For example, when preparing a thesis or dissertation, you will prepare a review; doing so will help clarify where your particular research and subsequent thesis or dissertation is situated within academic work on your given topic. You may also have to prepare abbreviated reviews for individual papers you are required to write for a class. If you submit a scholarly article for publication in an academic journal, the publication may require a review as well. Finally, you may have to prepare standalone reviews for some classes in pursuit of a advanced degree, too.
Collecting the sources relevant to a subject is extremely important; if you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your review will give you a clear comprehension of the current state of knowledge on your chosen question. Searching and analyzing the current sources can also be a very time-consuming process as well. Be prepared to dedicate a significant amount of time searching for key literature relevant to the work you are doing.
There are many places to search for relevant information. One of the best places to begin your search is at your university’s library, in their online catalog system. Additionally, you can use various databases. For example:
Read sources’ abstracts and summaries to evaluate the sources you find in your search; you will not have time to read every single text completely.https://medium.com/@vladimirtrofimov049/3-accounting-essay-samples-to-help-college-students-6b50992d93a4 You should assess whether or not the text is useful for your given study. Some questions you can ask yourself to determine whether or not the text should be included are:
Tip: You should always check the sources, citations, and bibliographies of the works you are considering; you may find additional texts to include in your work!
Take detailed notes on the texts you are considering and consider making a bibliography to aid in managing all of the various articles, books, and papers. Doing so will aid you later on when you are trying to find a key reference or particular work to cite.
As you begin selecting sources, you should consult with your faculty advisor or thesis committee. Experienced academics will be able to help you assess the sources you’ve chosen, and also verify that the texts you are selecting are reliable and respected in your given field of study.
If you kept good notes and began a bibliography since the very beginning, organizing your work should be a straightforward process. Some of the key things you can do to organize the texts you selected include:
Tip: As you put your work together, attempt to define any major underlying themes which connect the work that has been done on your chosen field of study. Doing so can help lead you to a greater comprehension of the topic; it will also help you determine the best outline structure to use.
Once you’ve organized all of your source texts, you’ll have to determine the best way to present them in the actual literature review. If you aim to write your work in an arranged fashion, you’ll first need to establish an outline structure. Doing so will allow you to present the texts you are referencing in a logical manner. There are several methods to structure your piece; here are four structures you can consider:
Tip. Prior to settling on an outline structure, consult with your thesis committee or faculty advisor. They may be able to give you some useful advice on structuring the document that makes it more logical and useful for anyone who references it.
Once you’ve selected all the material and organized it and determined your outline structure, you will be ready to write your text. Your academic institution may have a specific format for reviews, so ensure you talk to your professor or faculty advisor before you start working on the paper. Here is what the sections such assignment typically consists of:
Tip. Once you’ve written your piece, you should proofread it or let a professional team do it for you. We can not only edit your work, but create a literature review from scratch.
Reviews help to share knowledge on a given field and identify the questions and gaps that need to be filled in or studied further. Following the guidance and tips provided here can help you write an effective piece, so you fulfill all of your academic requirements and increase the comprehension of your field of study. Best of luck!
Often times, your writing assignments will require you to make an argument. You’ll be asked to take a stand on a particular topic and support your position with evidence.
If you have been given the task of writing an evidence based essay, you’ll need to know the very best ways to incorporate that evidence. Here is a guide to help you with the process.
There are several different styles of evidence (or proof). For a well-rounded paper, include a variety of types.
There are several methods to incorporate evidence into your essay. You might choose to portray data in a graph, chart or table. Sometimes, visuals – like photographs or illustrations with captions – are best. Often times, it is most persuasive to talk about a scholar’s own words; an interview excerpt works well in this situation.
Most often, though, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary.
a quotation is an exact preproduction of another person’s words. Use quotes when:
As is the case with any other type of evidence, you need to include a citation. You can use our citation generator.
If you take a part of text and put it in your own words, you are paraphrasing. This tactic usually centers on a single phrase, sentence or paragraph rather than a summary of the entire work.
Writers usually paraphrase when they want to reference the author’s ideas, but the actual words aren’t distinctive enough to quote. You can also paraphrase when you want to reference an example the other writer used.
Summaries are the perfect way to reference a large piece of text. Summaries are especially useful when writing shorter papers; you can reference a lot of reputable sources with a minimal amount of text.
Evidence could make or break the success of your essay. If you don’t have enough, your readers won’t feel you have a valid argument. Alternately, if you overload your essay with tons of rambling bits of evidence, readers won’t be able to unearth your claims.
For each piece of evidence, tell your readers how or why it supports your overall argument. If you don’t, you have simply created a document filled with facts and pieces of information. Establishing a connection to your overall claim is what turns facts into evidence.
Also, the only person inside your head is you. Readers won’t understand the point you are trying to make if you don’t tell them. Make sure there is an obvious connection between what was going on inside your mind when you chose that particular piece of evidence and how it relates to the essay. Don’t assume readers will understand the implication of your evidence.
This is especially relevant when using quotations. Writers often feel the urge to simply drop a quotation into a paragraph and assume it makes sense. Instead, surround the quotation with some sort of discussion or include an introduction and conclusion.
Choose your evidence wisely, cite it properly, tie it to your argument, and you’ll have a very persuasive essay!
Now you know how to incorporate evidence and make your paper sound convincing. If you have your own tips or questions, share in comments!
Throughout your college career, you are likely going to apply for most different types of academic programs. This will start with actually applying to a university or college itself. Then, over time, you might compete to be a part of the prestigious classes or graduate programs, or apply for grants to fund your research. Nearly all of these programs will be competitive, and it will be critical to distinguish yourself from other candidates. One of the most important but often overlooked parts of any academic application is the cover letter. a good one can often strengthen a candidate’s application and help make a case for his or her selection into prestigious academic programs. Let’s take a closer consider academic cover letters and discuss how to write a good one.
A cover letter is a short document that provides a quick summary of a larger packet of information. In the business world, people often use them as a synopsis for a resume or larger employment history packet when they are seeking a job. Cover letters are brief and to the point; usually, it will consist of just one page.
In academia, these documents may be used for several different reasons, including to:
This is just a small list of reasons why you will likely need to write a cover letter at some point during your academic career; there are also many other situations where this document is required. Finally, when you complete your academic studies, you will likely have to prepare a cover letter to accompany your resume when you apply for a job as well.
In the days of email and electronic communication, why should you even bother including a cover letter with any sort of academic application packet? There are several different reasons. For starters, you may be required to include it for a given application. Additionally, an academic can help to convey the following information to the reader:
Academic cover letters may vary slightly, depending on the purpose and the intended audience. However, regardless of the differences, they all must include some basic characteristics in order to be effective. Here are the steps you should take to write one.
Prior to starting your first cover letter, the first thing you should do is determine if there are any specific requirements it must meet. Standardizing formats and requiring candidates to present information in a certain way makes it easier for reviewers to assess multiple candidates in a short period of time. For example, the academic program you are applying to may require you to use a specific format. You may also have to include certain information in your cover letter, such as your current academic degrees or credentials. So, find out if there are any specific requirements for your letter before you begin to write it.
Once you’ve determined whether or not there are any requirements, you should start thinking about the information you are going to present in the letter itself. To do that, start with answering the following questions:
Asking those questions and answering them honestly – and even writing down some notes as a result – will give you an excellent start to preparing an honest, effective cover letter.
If the academic program you are applying to does not give you a specific format for a cover letter, you’ll have to make your own. a typical one will consist of the following sections:
If you aren’t told otherwise, plan on using a common font, such as Calibri, Arial, or occasions New Roman, in size 12. Your letter should be easy for reviewers to read. Do not attempt to significantly decrease the font in order to jam more info onto a single page; instead, if your letter is too long, be prepared to make a tough call and edit out some of the information.
Once you’ve created your basic template, you’ll be ready to outline the body paragraphs.
You only have 4-5 paragraphs to utilize, so you really need to make them count! One of the best methods to do that is to create a rough outline for each one, so you can ensure you capture all of the critical information you want to cover. While some writers do not like to utilize outlines, it can be a helpful way to ensure you don’t miss anything. Outlines can often help you write faster, too.
In the case of a cover letter, a few simple notes to capture for each paragraph can often be enough to get you started. For example, in your opening paragraph, you may want to jot a few notes down about covering who you are and what you’re applying for. Your next paragraph may cover why you want to be selected for an academic program, followed by a paragraph that has a strong call to action for why the academic institution in question should select you. Your closing paragraph should summarize and reinforce everything you stated previously and bring the document to a satisfying close. Once you are satisfied with your outline, you will be ready to begin writing.
After you prepare your outline, writing the actual body should be straightforward. Finish the thoughts you introduced in your outline with complete sentences, forming paragraphs. If necessary, include effective transitions from one paragraph to the next, too. You should write in your own voice but ensure that the overall tone of the cover letter is formal. Once you complete the letter, review it one time for style, grammar, and errors making any necessary changes. Then, if possible, set it aside for a day or two before you review it again.
If you stuck with your writing, ask a professional team to write a cover letter for you or edit the existing one.
Giving yourself a clean break between writing and reviewing your piece will help ensure you look at it with a fresh set of eyes. Once you feel plenty of time has passed since you drafted the letter, read it through from beginning to end without stopping, even if you notice an error. If you are unsatisfied with the flow and style of the letter, make any necessary changes and check the cover letter again for grammar and spelling. Continue this process before you are satisfied with how the letter turned out.
If possible, you should also have someone you trust to review the letter as well. The second set of eyes may help you improve the letter and could spot errors that your tired eyes missed as well. Once your second reviewer has provided feedback, you can decide what additional revisions you want to make, and then check one last time for grammar and spelling.
Once the final review is complete, adjust the date to reflect the time of submission, print the cover letter, and sign it in ink. If your academic packet is being mailed or submitted on paper, you can add the letter to the larger packet. You can scan the signed letter and send it via email.
As you apply for competitive and highly sought-after academic programs, make sure you take the time to write a successful cover letter. It is often the first thing that academic review boards read when reviewing a packet; if you write a good one, it can help set a good first impression and complement the rest of your application. So, take the advice and tips offered here into consideration, and you’ll be on your way to writing effective cover letters throughout your academic career.
You have carried out study successfully, your instructor has now requested you to write a report on the same, and you don’t know what to do about it. Lab reports vary depending on the level of study, as well as specific advice from the tutor. Some instructors may prescribe unique formats to be adhered to in the preparation of the report and may even provide you with a template or guidance. Due to the variations in the format, you are likely to come across different approaches in writing. If the instructor does not specify the need for some particular part, then you do not need to include it. Now you may be wondering, where do you begin and how do you get all that done?
A lab report is the type of task that you will need to start working on at the earliest opportunity. Try as much as possible to fight off the temptation to postpone. It is due to the fact that it is common to have several revisions based on the instructor’s feedback that will take up quite a considerable amount of time. The more you wait, the higher the chances of you forgetting a substantial proportion of the details from the study or experiment. The report is characterized by many small but essential details that require adequate time as well as attention to detail to pull through without leaving out crucial details. If you develop a plan in advance with timelines for the managing of various sections of the report, it can help you manage the task with little stress without having to compromise some parts that can cause you to end up with poor-quality work, which may cost you important marks.
The title tells the reader what to expect from this work. It needs to be precise when providing an explanation of the main idea behind the study. Consider starting the title with a keyword rather than an article such as ‘a,’ ‘an,’ or ‘the.’
Even though this is the opening part of your piece, you handle it last after you are done with the rest of the work. It provides a synopsis of the report. Even though it is brief, it should highlight essential points. You can make it roughly 150 words. The abstract is one of the most visible parts of the report and will, as such, need your undivided attention as it is likely to attract the greatest attention from your instructor. It should have a good flow that enables one to go through it without much trouble.
This chapter’s aim is to provide the context of the problem. In some instances, this section may provide the purpose of the study itself. The reader should be in a position to tell the type of issue you are attempting to solve. It states the problem of the report succinctly. Discuss why the problem is worth solving. The introduction may also act as the background to the report and will talk about past or related work on the issue, especially if attempts in the past to resolve it were unsuccessful. You will need to come up with the hypothesis in a single sentence.
In this section, give information on the instruments as well as the explanation of the methods. Be careful not to put out an excessive amount of data that may overwhelm the reader. Consider incorporating a diagram of the equipment where you find it necessary to provide a description of specialty equipment and an explanation on how it is used. Include a short paragraph providing a description of the equipment, the methods and strategies that you will be employing for the experiment. You will need to include the theoretical elements in both derived and natural forms.
Provide a description of the steps you followed during the experiment. The steps constitute your procedure. Be sure to include adequate details to enable anyone to go through this section and conduct a similar investigation. The write-up should appear like you are providing direction to another person to carry out the same steps. Make the assumption that the reader is not aware of whatever you did. Your writing should be in the past tense. Do not attempt to explain the logic behind this method. All you have to do is to report the exact things you did. Consider including diagrams or illustrations to showcase the steps of work.
Here you should provide a report on the recorded results. It will vary depending on the type of experiment you have carried out, implementation, goals, etc. You should lay out all the data you got during the work. The data is usually presented in the form of a table. It entails your recordings during the investigation. It merely encompasses the facts and does not include any interpretation that you may have regarding their meaning.
Avoid discussing opinions or making comments that are not objective. Use tables and figures for proper organization of your data to enhance clarity. Make sure to properly label the rows and columns of all tables as well as graphs’ axes. Titling of the table and figures needs to be descriptive, number according to the sequence, and incorporate a descriptive legend for the abbreviations and symbols among others.
Provide a description of the meaning for the data. This section will cater specifically to major points concerning the data results. Objectivity is also crucial in this section. Irrespective of the degree to which your results have confirmed your hypothesis, this section has to maintain the highest possible level of objectivity. You can consider some of the points below to help you understand if the data and its objective are clear to the reader:
Not always this chapter is required as it can often be combined with the previous one. Here, you should have calculations that are based on the numbers, provide an interpretation for the data, and a determination of if the hypothesis was proven or refuted. You will need to give a logical connection of your results to theory. Discuss potential mistakes that you may have made when carrying out the experiment. Consider also discussing how the study could have been improved by suggesting any improvements to the equipment or method that you may have realized during the experiment. Any expected predictions provided must be clearly depicted as being so. Be sure to suggest potential experiments in the future that can enable clarification of your results.
Look into any other potential weaknesses in your discussion. Avoid the temptation to provide a vague picture of the weaknesses, as this may adversely affect your credibility. Addressing the weaknesses explicitly helps in the development of trust between you and the reader helping enhancer professional respect for either party by the other.
This part (that might take only one paragraph) summarizes the things covered in the body of the lab report. It briefly highlights the events in the experiment, whether there was an acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis, and the implication of this. Even though the conclusion is merely a summary, it is one of the most visible sections as it draws the attention of the reader. This goes on to show the type of weight that you need to attach to your conclusion. In the conclusion, you are expected to state the key findings of your investigation precisely. Strive to show how readers have gained from your work or how it fits into the bigger context.
In this part, you will list all the sources that were used in preparing your report. It is better to include only the sources you have cited in the report. Your list should be presented in alphabetical order based on the surnames of the authors. The arrangement of the rest of the information within each entry in the list will depend on the type of source.
If you struggle with creating your lab report, you can always consider a professional team of experts who can assist you in writing or editing your work. Good luck!
If you have faced a term paper before, you don’t only acknowledge how challenging it can be to complete it but also how big of a contribution it makes to the final grade in the course you are handling. So, you are not only looking to complete it but also ace it to stand a chance at a excellent score. With the right approach, you can be sure to tackle the essay successfully. Consider the following steps to writing a great piece:
Select an interesting topic that aligns with the subject matter you wish to investigate. Be as creative as possible to make it catchy. The title should be designed in a way that allows you to find answers to your primary questions. However, it should be precise. You may need to adjust it from an initially broader topic and narrow down to make it more specific. This will ensure less research time with optimal outcomes.
In case the topic has already been provided by your instructor, you should consider employing techniques that will make your content unique and insightful. Be sure to remain objective and avoid having a predetermined outcome in mind. The findings you make during your research should shape your analysis and be reflected in the outcome. Allow the information explored along the way to challenge and impact your views.
Avoid the temptation to draw essay content from your knowledge on the topic that is based on past experiences.